Geology and Exploration History of the Amalgamated Kirkland Deposit, Kirkland Lake, Ontari

Abstract The Amalgamated Kirkland gold deposit is located at Kirkland Lake, Ontario, within the Archean Abitibi Greenstone belt of the Canadian Shield. It lies on a fault or “break”, termed the Cyprus Break, which is a splay off a regional structure termed the Cyprus-Battle Mountain Break. The Cyprus Break merges with the Cyprus – Battle Mountain Break above the -250 m level, as it was not encountered in shallow drilling or surface exploration. These structures lie 1.5 km south of the 727 000 kg (23 million ounce) Kirkland Lake Main Break and 0.5 km north of the 872 000 kg (30 million ounce) Larder Lake Break.
The deposit is hosted by alkalic Timiskaming Group volcanic and sedimentary rocks which are overthrust by older Larder Lake Group tholeiitic and komatiitic flows along the Larder Lake Break. Timiskaming syenitic intrusives, similar to the host rocks for the Kirkland Lake Main Break gold deposit, intrude both suites.
The Amalgamated Kirkland deposit consists of lode-style gold mineralization which is mainly hosted by altered and pyritized Timiskaming trachytic volcanics which wedge out or thin at depth, between two sedimentary units. The intersection of the Cyprus – Battle Mountain and Cyprus Breaks, in conjunction with the westward plunge of the volcanic wedge, appears to control the westerly plunge of the Amalgamated Kirkland deposit at approximately 50º. Mineralization is characterized by blue-gray brecciated and “wormy” quartz-ankerite veins which contain up to 10% fine-grained pyrite and, in decreasing order of abundance, minor galena, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, molybdenite and visible gold. The sulfides and gold commonly occur along fractures and wallrock inclusions within the veins. Native gold occurs as fine pinpoints distributed in 1-mm to 5-mm size clusters of up to ten or more grains. The auriferous veins occur within a quartz-ankerite-sericite-pyrite alteration assemblage which is enveloped by a broader zone of ankerite sericite±hematite±quartz-pyrite alteration up to 60 m wide. This latter assemblage overprints the regional greenschist-facies chlorite-calcite assemblage.
The Amalgamated Kirkland property has had a long history of exploration activity beginning with the first discovery of mineralization in 1911 on the Hunton Shaft claim located in the northeast corner of the property. Since that time various prospecting, mapping, trenching, geophysical surveys and diamond drilling programs have concentrated on either carbonate zones along the Larder Lake Break or quartz veins along the northern side of the property in association with complex trachyte flows and syenite dikes.
Battle Mountain Canada Inc. located the Cyprus – Battle Mountain Break through a prospecting,
trenching and geophysical program in 1989. Drilling by Battle Mountain and Cyprus Canada under the surface showing, coupled with several revisions to the structural interpretation of the Cyprus – Battle Mountain and Cyprus Breaks, resulted in delineation of the Amalgamated Kirkland deposit. Location of an auriferous structure through basic surface exploration within 1 km of a world-class orebody demonstrates both the subtle nature of Archean gold deposits and the potential for finding new mineralization in heavily prospected camps.
Keywords: Geology, Exploration, Amalgamated Kirkland Deposit, Kirkland Lake, Drilling, Sedimentary rocks, Mineralization.
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Summary: Hundreds of diamonds have been found in the United States. The majority of the discoveries occurred during the 19th century as a by-product of placer gold mining. Most of these early diamond ?nds have no known source, and in many cases are situated in areas unfavorable for diamond exploration based on current models that require kimberlite or lamproite to be emplaced in a
stable Archean craton or Proterozoic craton margin.
Diamonds have also been recovered in situ from lamproite at Murfreesbu...
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Author(s): W. DAN HAUSEL
Keywords: Metals, Diamonds, Kimberlites, Lamporites, United States.
Issue: 3
Volume: 4
Year: 1995
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Summary: The central part of the early Proterozoic Ketilidian orogen in South Greenland consists of an I-type granitoid batholith transected by four regional NE-SW-trending shear zones. The batholith was probably emplaced during subduction, from the south toward the Archaean craton in the north, in a sinistral transpressional system. A regional sediment sampling program covering 5000 km2 shows a close connection between a gold-mineralized trend and one of the major shear zones within the epizonal...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): H. STENDAL, L. GRAHL-MADSEN, H.K. OLSEN
Keywords: Exploration, Gold exploration, Proterozoic, Greenland, Batholith, Sampling.
Issue: 3
Volume: 4
Year: 1995
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Summary: Plants have a remarkable ability to select, use and store metals derived from the substrate. Each species is unique in its requirements for and tolerances to the full spectrum of chemical elements in the Periodic Table. Studies to de?ne the chemical characteristics of common trees and shrubs of the temperate forest are providing insight to their use for exploration, i.e., biogeochemical exploration. Examples of surveys over gold deposits in British Columbia show the effectiveness of sampling...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): COLIN E. DUNN
Keywords: Exploration, Mineral exploration, Temperate Forests, Plants, Biogeochemical exploration
Issue: 3
Volume: 4
Year: 1995
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Summary: It has long been recognized that platinum-group-element (PGE) deposits in layered intrusions preferentially occur in intrusions that crystallized from high-Mg parent magmas. Recent studies suggest that evaluation of any given intrusion for economic PGE potential should also include assessment of the PGE, sulfur and chlorine concentrations in the cumulates and potential parent liquids. PGE: Magmas that contain relatively abundant Pt and Pd are the best candidates for forming economic deposits....
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): A.E. BOUDREAU
Keywords: Geochemistry, Exploration, Platinum-group-element exploration, PGE, Magma,
Issue: 3
Volume: 4
Year: 1995
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Summary: Detailed oxygen isotope mapping of rhyolites in and around the Kidd Creek mine indicates that the orebodies are associated with relatively low (<12‰) whole rock values that extend up to 200 m laterally from ore. The zone of low d 18 O values is overlain stratigraphically by a carapace
of higher (>13‰) values that extends up to 1.5 km laterally from and 300 m to 500 m above ore.
Immediately above the stratigraphically highest orebody this carapace is cut by a zone of lower d 18 O values...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): DAVID L. HUSTON, WOUTER BLEEKER, BRUCE E. TAYLOR
Keywords: Kidd Creek Mine, Isotope mapping, Exploration, Geochemistry, Stratisgraphy, Oxygen isotope
Issue: 3
Volume: 4
Year: 1995
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Summary: The utility of high-density stream sediment and stream water sampling to the exploration for silver deposits was investigated by the study of the epithermal Ag-Au base-metal prospect at Lagalochan in western Scotland. The geology of Lagalochan is dominated by a calc-alkaline Caledonian intrusive complex emplaced into Dalradian Supergroup rocks (Harris et al., 1988a). The complex consists of subvolcanic porphyrytic rocks associated with intense hydrothermal alteration and brecciation. Early...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): D.A. POLYA, R.A.D. PATTRICK, D.J. MARSH, J.-J. BAO
Keywords: Silver dispersion, Base metal dispersion, Stream sediments, Stream water sampling, Mineralization.
Issue: 3
Volume: 4
Year: 1995
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Summary: The schist-, sediment-, and intrusion-hosted Tertiary Au-Ag hydrothermal deposits of the northern Black Hills, South Dakota are localized and controlled by various types of fractures. This study is an attempt to distinguish between and discuss the possible causes of these fractures in three mines: Richmond Hill, Annie Creek – Foley Ridge (ACFR), and Gilt Edge. Five models based on the structural and tectonic settings of the northern Black Hills are proposed for the fracture origin. In...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): MUSTAFA M. HARIRI, ALVIS L. LISENBEE, COLIN J. PATERSON
Keywords: Fracture control, Hydrothermal deposits.
Issue: 3
Volume: 4
Year: 1995
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Summary: <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN">
<HTML><HEAD>
<META content="text/html; charset=unicode" http-equiv=Content-Type>
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<BODY>A variety of techniques for interpreting systems of mineralized echelon
veins is discussed using examples from Panasqueira and SW England. As aids for
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particular emphasis is placed upon establishing vein...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): K.A. FOXFORD
Keywords: Modelling Systems,Mineralized echelon veins, Vein systems, Vein dialation
Issue: 3
Volume: 4
Year: 1995
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Summary: Geochemical background levels have been established for unmineralized sedimentary rocks that are elsewhere the hosts of Carlin-type gold deposits in the Getchell Trend. The Paleozoic rocks in the Winnemucca Quadrangle consist predominantly of the lower Paleozoic siliceous and clastic sequences that were carried eastward along the Roberts Mountains thrust during the Late Devonian and Early Mississippian Antler Orogeny and the late Paleozoic Havallah and Pumpernickel sequences brought along the...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): L.C. HSU, H.F. BONHAM JR., J.G. PRICE, L.J. GARSIDE, M.O. DESILETS, P.J. LECHLER
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Issue: 3
Volume: 4
Year: 1995
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Summary: Ghana, a major West African gold-producing country, took a crucial step in 1986 to allow private participation in mining ventures that had hitherto been state controlled and starved of funds. This decision has led to a three-fold rise in gold production with substantial local and foreign capital once again ?owing into exploration and mining projects. Though the rise in gold export is due primarily to increased production from large mines such as Ashanti Gold?elds Corporation, Billiton Bogosu...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): KOMLA DZIGBODI-ADJIMAH, SAMMY BANSAH
Keywords: Exploration, Gold exploration, Ghana, Gold mining, Financial limitations.
Issue: 3
Volume: 4
Year: 1995
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