A data acquisition system for geotechnical instrumentation and design

Abstract The mining industry has developed a strong need for monitoring underground openings since bulk mining, used for increased productivity, has become the dominant mining method industry wide. The large stapes associated with bulk mining methods generally have to remain open and stable for several months, and monitoring is essential to provide an indication of ground response to mining and stope stability. The instrumentation data is also important during design optimization, which is used to maximize recovery, to minimize the dilution of ore and to minimize costs. Monitoring is essential to implement safety and is also critical in stope and mining sequence designs. The safety related aspects of monitoring include the protection of underground workers and the prevention of accidents by providing early warnings of the onset of any ground instability. The design related aspects of monitoring involve the development of data bases used for stope dimensioning and mine sequencing and timing and the monitoring of ground behaviour as a result of mining to verify the validity of the design thus allowing for remedial action during operation.
Manual instrumentation data collection is, in a number of cases, economically unfeasible and, in many situations, dangerous as instrumented areas become inaccessible or extremely unstable. Also, because more and more complex instrumentation is being installed in underground operations, in several cases it becomes practically impossible to collect readings manually. The design and development of low-cost acquisition systems for mine wide monitoring would thus constitute an important step toward automation in excavation instrumentation. A unique menu-driven automatic 32-channel analog data acquisition and analysis system with a built-in rock failure warning mechanism has been designed and developed. This low cost acquisition system is capable of receiving, processing, displaying and storing the transmitted instrument data remotely and automatically. Computer software has been designed to provide data reduction and analysis immediately in the field and to automatically display results in graphical form for quick interpretation. Automatic data interpretation is used to show trends in rock mass behaviour and the system can be used to provide early warning of rock failure to the mine personnel working in the area so that immediate remedial action can be safely taken.
Keywords: Data acquisition system, Computer applications, Rock mechanics, Geotechnical instrumentation.
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Summary: A pressure oxidation plant to pretreat refractory sulphide ore at the Goldstrike plant in Nevada, was commissioned in early February 1990. The plant, with a nominal capacity of 1363 t/d, was commissioned over a one-week period and achieved design capacity and availability within ten weeks an unusually short period for a plant of this complexity.
The pressure oxidation process is conducted under elevated temperature and pressure conditions, and in a corrosive environment. These conditions...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): K.S. Fraser, H.J.H. Pieterse, K.G. Thomas
Keywords: Mineral Processing, Goldstrike pressure oxidation plant, Pressure oxidation plant, Refractory sulphide ore, Process design, Engineering design, Gold, Nevada.
Issue: 956
Volume: 85
Year: 1992
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Summary: Modular, predesigned diamond recovery plants have been a feature of the diamond mining industry for more than 20 years. The reasons for the selection of such a design route are contrasted with the alternative option of custom-designed route and the relative merits of the two approaches are discussed. The predesigned, modular plant is shown to be particularly applicable for the smaller operation, whether as part of a diverse alluvial mine, an auditing facility for an adjacent large plant, bulk...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): Graham Popplewell, J. Smith
Keywords: Diamond mining, Mineral processing, Recovery plant design.
Issue: 956
Volume: 85
Year: 1992
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Summary: The effectiveness of sulphuric acid, nitric acid, and hydrogen peroxide pressure oxidation on the cyanide extractability of gold from a double-refractory concentrate is presented. While over 90% of the sulphide content could be oxidized by either of the two acid pretreatments, only 65% was achieved by the peroxide oxidation. Carbon oxidation by both acid and peroxide pressure oxidation were less than 15%. Although the peroxide pressure oxidation pretreatment resulted in much lower sulphur and...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): Kafui Nyavor, Nosa O. Egiebor
Keywords: Gold concentrate, Oxidation, Mineral processing, Pressure oxidation, Double-refractory concentrate, Hydrometallurgy.
Issue: 956
Volume: 85
Year: 1992
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Summary: Scientific advances in the past decade have greatly clarified our understanding of certain concepts relating to the age and origin of diamonds. These advances are largely the result of geochemical studies of mineral inclusions in diamonds, made possible by modem analytical techniques which enable the accurate chemical analysis of micro-sized particles of the order of 200 microns in maximum dimension. As a generalization, the inclusions indicate that most diamonds formed from either of two...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): M.B. Kirkley, J.J. Gurney, A.A. Levinson
Keywords: Industrial minerals, Diamond mining, Kimberlites, Lamproites.
Issue: 956
Volume: 85
Year: 1992
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Summary: Dia Met Minerals has recently acquired a pilot plant for recovering diamonds larger than 0.5 mm from primary diamondiferous host rocks (kimberlite or lamproite) and secondary or alluvial diamondiferous materials. This is a highly specialized plant to produce small volumes of heavy mineral (including diamond) concentrates from large (1501 to 1000 t) samples derived from exploration programs. The plant can process up to 35 t to 75 t per working day and includes facilities for final diamond...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): George W. Poling, Michael A. Waldman
Keywords: Mineral processing, Diamond mining, Dia Met Minerals, Pilot plants.
Issue: 956
Volume: 85
Year: 1992
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Summary: The presence in Saskatchewan of sixteen kimberlite pipes of probable late Albion age has been reported. An abundance of aero-magnetic anomalies possibly attributable to kimberlite pipes have been identified and it is anticipated that industry has acquired reasonable proof of the presence of more than seventy kimberlite pipes in Saskatchewan. Historical reports of diamonds, the discovery of kimberlite pipes and these aeromagnetic anomalies indicate the Phanerozoic Basin and some parts of the...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): Malcolm R. Gent
Keywords: Diamond mining, Saskatchewan, Exploration, Kimberlites, Mineral economics, Corundum, Lamproites.
Issue: 956
Volume: 85
Year: 1992
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