Geology of the Sturgeon Lake copper-zinc-lead-silver-gold deposit

Abstract The Sturgeon Lake deposit, a partly eroded lens of massive sulphides with an underlying sulphide stringer zone, is one of five orebodies that occur in the Sturgeon Lake area of northwestern Ontario within volcaniclastic rocks of the Archean Wabigoon Subprovince in the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield.The Sturgeon Lake Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag-Au deposit was discovered in October 1970 as a result of an I. P. survey. Production from this open-pit mine began in March 1974 and continued until the ore was exhausted in March 1980.The Sturgeon Lake property is underlain by basaltic volcanics, minor amounts of mafic lapilli tuff and rhyolite volcaniclastics. A quartz crystal-bearing rhyolite occurs at the top of the felsic volcaniclastics and is "capped" by the Sturgeon Lake massive sulphide deposit. The felsic volcanics have been intruded by a crudely layered sill-like, carbonatized mafic intrusion. Recent work suggests that the felsic rocks that underlie the Sturgeon Lake deposit are lateral equivalents of those in the vicinity of the Mattabi Mine and are not correlative with the dacitic volcaniclastics that underlie the Lyon Lake and Creek Zone deposits. Hydrothermal processes that resulted in the formation of the Sturgeon Lake orebody have resulted in a depletion of Na2O, CaO and FeO and an increase in MgO, K2O, copper and zinc. In the vicinity of the sulphide stringer zone, the rhyolites are "bleached" due to silicification and serialization. The rocks lying immediately below the massive sulphides are locally strongly chloritic.The Sturgeon Lake deposit may have formed on a topographic high which prevented mafic flows and dacitic volcaniclastics that underlie the Lyon Lake and Creek Zone deposits from inundating the Sturgeon Lake fumarolic vent from the west. Continued or resurgent activity from the Sturgeon Lakefumarole may have resulted in the formation of the Lyon Lake and Creek Zones as more "distal" deposits in topographic lows. The Sturgeon Lake, Lyon Lake and Creek Zone deposits were subsequently overlain by mafic tuffs and flows.The Sturgeon Lake massive sulphides exhibit metal zoning and the sulphide stringers or veinlets form a ragged net-like pattern within the footwall rhyolites and are most heavily developed immediately below the central portion of the massive sulphides.A narrow carbonatized mafic sill/dyke intrudes the hang-ingwall contact of the massive sulphides and crosscuts the north sector of the deposit. Strong foliation in this dyke and intercalated tuff within the massive sulphides at both extremities of the deposit has provided channelways for ground-water circulation that resulted in minor to moderate amounts of oxidation of sulphides and local development of strong chlorite and kaolinite. These alteration products, located in the north and east areas of the deposit, were a source of metallurgical problems during the early stages of production.
Keywords: Geology, Economic geology, Sturgeon Lake deposit, Bell Lake mafics, Beidelman Bay Complex, Massive sulphides, Sulphide deposits, Copper, Zinc.
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Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): ROBERT B. PARSONS, Partner Price Waterhouse, Toronto
Issue: 846
Volume: 75
Year: 1982
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Summary: This paper describes: how Falconbridge's fire protection system meets the needs of the Lockerby Mine; why the system was chosen over other alternatives; how it is unique, but can be applied to any underground situtation; details of the system; how it was installed; the role of a fire protection company; and general considerations when choosing a fire-suppresant system.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): LORNE ROBERTS
Keywords: Fire protection, Fire suppression, Underground mining, Safety, Foam, Sprinklers.
Issue: 846
Volume: 75
Year: 1982
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Summary: Part 1 of this paper, published in the September issue, covered the occurrence of uranium, radiation from uranium ores, the uranium series, radioactive theory, radioactive equilibrium and application to the radon series, the working level, the theory of emanation and diffusion, transport by thermal diffusion of radon emanating from porous rocks, and definitions.This Part 2, which follows, deals with radiation theory applied to uranium ores, other radon migration factors, factors affecting the...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): R.W. THOMPKINS
Issue: 846
Volume: 75
Year: 1982
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Summary: A general review of the wear problems encountered in the mining industry is presented and current practice for wear protection systems is reviewed.A new concept in wear protection is described and compared to alternative systems. Utilization of conventional stud welding technology and abrasion-resistant wear studs is shown to be a useful supplement or substitution for conventional techniques. Operating life of many consumable components can be increased by up to four fold. The technique is...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): R.C. COOK, V. SILINS, J. TAMELING
Keywords: Metallurgy, Wear protection, Abrasion resistance, Welding, Steel, Hardness.
Issue: 846
Volume: 75
Year: 1982
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Summary: In 1957, the Department of Mines and Technical Surveys (now Energy, Mines and Resources Canada) issued their first certificate for a fire-resistant conveyor belt. The testing procedure used was a combination of those used in the U.S.A. and the U.K. Subsequently, certification was granted to fire-resistant electric cables (1974), fire-resistant mine duct material (1976) and fire-resistant hydraulic fluids (1978).Until recently, the testing procedures were copied from either the U.S. or the...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): J.A. BOSSERT
Keywords: Fire protection, Testing, Certification, Safety, Standards, Underground mining, Conveyor belts, Hydraulic fluids, Cables.
Issue: 846
Volume: 75
Year: 1982
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Summary: Sidbec-Normines Inc. est une societe formee de trois partenaires soient: Sidbec, British Steel Corporation et la Compagnie Miniere Quebec Cartier. L'objectif de I'operation miniere est d'exploiter a del ouvert le gisement d'hematite speculaire de Fire Lake et de produire au concentrateur de Lac-Jeannine, pres de la ville de Gagnon, 6 million de tonnes de concentre pour alimenter I'usine de bouletage de Port-Cartier.Le present expose a pour but de faire ressortier les caracteristiques d'une...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): MARCEL ALLARD
Keywords: Operations a ciel ouvert, Fire Lake, Lac-Jeannine, Sidbec-Normines, Quebec Cartier, Hematite, Immobiliations, Transport, Main-d'oeuvre.
Issue: 846
Volume: 75
Year: 1982
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Summary: The province's lignite resources lie mainly in the south, extensions of the much larger deposits in Montana and North Dakota. Because of planned additional capacity, conventional steam power generation will probably remain as the dominant resource usage for many decades. Conversion of coal to other energy forms is receiving emphasis and in the future will compete with steam power generation in terms of quantities used.Economic deposits, minable by present-day technology, have been generally...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): T. ADAMCEWICZ
Keywords: Coal, Saskatchewan, Lignite, Power generation, Energy, Reclamation, Environment, Synfuels.
Issue: 846
Volume: 75
Year: 1982
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Summary: The processing of uranium ores produces tailings that could constitute environmental problems. At most operations the tailings are dumped into a designated area, with the ultimate acid drainage occurring if sulphides are present, together with the release of metal constituents to the rivers and streams. If the chemical reactions occurring within the tailings could be predicted, perhaps methods could be developed to either increase or decrease the rates of reaction. One such study has been in...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): G.M. RITCEY, M. SILVER
Keywords: Mineral processing, Lysimeters, Tailings, Uranium tailings, Environmental control, Elliot Lake, Rabbit Lake, Midwest Lake, Key Lake, Radionuclides.
Issue: 846
Volume: 75
Year: 1982
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Summary: Cretaceous sands and clays underlie an area of approximately 5,000 km2 in Northern Ontario, southwest of James Bay. The deltaic deposits occur as a wedge of continental sediments to the north of an east-trending fault scarp referred to as the Precambrian Escarpment. They rest on older sedimentary formations of the Moose River Basin (Jurassic, Devonian) and are covered by glacial tills and marine sediments of the Quaternary period. Outcrops are restricted to occasional exposure in the deeply...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): M.A. VOS
Keywords: Industrial minerals, James Bay Lowland, Sand, Quartz sand, Clay, Kaolinite clay, Moose River Basin, Mattagami Formation, Ceramic tests, Cretaceous deposits.
Issue: 846
Volume: 75
Year: 1982
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Summary: Evaporites abound in the Western Canada sedimentary basin, recurring throughout the stratigraphic column and widely scattered over the basin region. Alberta, situated centrally over the basin, includes many of the evaporites within its borders, but only a few have the right geological conditions to form potential economic deposits of salt or gypsum. These include the Middle Devonian Elk Point Group and related evaporites, Upper Devonian Wabamun Group—Palliser Formation evaporites, and...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): W.N. HAMILTON
Keywords: Industrial minerals, Alberta, Salt, Gypsum, Evaporites, Elk Point Group, Fort Vermilion Formation, Burnais Formation, Wabamun Group, Palliser Formation, Charlie Lake Formation, Whitehorse Formation, Lotsberg Salt, Cold Lake Salt, Prairie Evaporite Salt, Stettler Salt, Kananaskis Gypsum, Salt River Gypsum, Fort McMurray Gypsum, Peace Point Gypsum, Head Creek Gypsum, Featherstonehaugh Creek Gypsum, Mowitch Creek Gypsum.
Issue: 846
Volume: 75
Year: 1982
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