Cold Water Thawing of Frozen Placer Gravel

GOLD-BEARING placers of Alaska and the Yukon Territories are buried under a layer of permanently frozen alluvial overburden, or 'muck', which varies in depth twenty to one hundred feet. The placers, and the decomposed bedrock layers upon which they are deposited, are also permanently frozen. During the summer, surface muck which is expo3ed to the sun will thaw, but only to a depth of a few feet.
Keywords: Alaska, coupled, Nome, Alaska, pipe, placer, rock, Equipment, Gravel, Operation, Pipe, Steam, test, Tests, Water, Waters
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