Sapping and mining have constituted an important part of siege operations ever since powder came into general use in Europe. Before this period, famine was the main weapon in the hands of the besiegers, and the history of the middle ages is replete with accounts of sieges lasting two and three years. With the advent of explosives, a position impregnable to assault might be readily won by mining under, and blowing up, its defences.
Keywords: France, France, geophone, Hill 60, tunnelling companies, Ypres, Maps, Mine, Mines, mining, Operation, sound, Tunnelling
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