ROCK BOLTING TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS FOR GATEROADS IN FULLY MECHANIZED TOP COAL CAVING FACE
The fully mechanized top coal caving mining method has been the main mining approach for thick coal seams with high output and efficiency in Chinese coal mines. The gateroads for the top coal caving mining faces should be driven along the floor of the thick coal seam with a part of the seam as roof. The support of the gateroads is commonly difficult because of the low strength and broken structures of the coal seams, and the increasingly large section of gateroads meeting the need of greater and greater face coal output. Based on the analyses on the geomechanics properties and production conditions of the top coal caving mining, the influences of the top coal caving mining parameters on the stability of gateroads, including mining thickness and face length, are studied. The deformation and damage features of the rock mass surrounding the gateroads with the top coal seam as roof are investigated, the interaction of the support with the surrounding rock mass, the support theory are studied. The bolting design method and criteria, bolting forms and parameters for the gateroads with the top coal as roof are put forward. The rock bolting components, including bolt bars, face plates, cable tendons, meshes, and steel straps, are introduced. Finally, the gateroad bolting effects are evaluated through a typical case study on the basis of field monitoring data, such as the displacement of surrounding rock mass and the forces along bolts and cables.
Coal; Caving; Gateroads; Coal seams; stress; mining; Bolts; Cables; deformation;