THE DESIGN OF ENTRY SUPPORT IN COAL ROOM AND PILLAR MINES IN THE USA TO COMBAT ROCK RELATED FALLS OF GROUND
From 1999 to 2008 rock related accidents accounted for 75 fatalities, nearly 6,000 injuries and almost 14,000 incidents (Pappas and Mark, 2011). Clearly this shows that rock related safety on coal mines remains a serious issue and more effort is needed to address this hazard. This paper reviews support design considerations and monitoring needed to improve rock related safety in room and pillar coal mines in the USA. From the present study design considerations continue to evolve and improvements in technology and a better understanding of failure mechanisms and methods to prevent these failures from occurring are in place. At first glance, the design of safe and efficient underground openings appears simple until the designer begins to realize the complexities and variability of geometries, geology, loading and stress influences, support designs and other factors such as corrosion and economics. Ultimately the goal of all designs is to ensure that it can be completed safely, last for the duration of the design life and it is economically feasible.
Support; Supports; Design; Rock; Rocks; stress; coal mines; Coal mine; Bolts;