EVALUATION OF HIGH-RATE CLARIFICATION PROCESSES FOR MINE WATER TREATMENT WITH CEMENT KILN DUST
Mine water from base metal mines is generally characterized as having high concentrations of heavy metals and low pH, resulting in the need for treatment prior to discharge to receiving waters. In this study, two high-rate clarification processes were evaluated at bench-scale: the high density sludge (HDS) process and sand-ballasted flocculation. High-rate clarification processes generate larger, denser flocs which settle more quickly than those formed in conventional flocculation processes. The HDS process uses recirculated sludge in order to seed floc formation, whereas ballasted flocculation uses microsand. Both of these high-rate processes require the addition of quicklime or hydrated lime to increase pH and allow for the formation of insoluble metal hydroxides, which can then be removed in the clarification stage. Previous research has shown that cement kiln dust (CKD) can effectively replace quicklime in conventional sedimentation processes for metals and acidity reduction to meet discharge guidelines (Mackie & Walsh 2012). CKD is an alkaline by-product of cement manufacture that has fine particle sizes and varying free lime concentrations depending on the manufacturing process. The lower solubility (i.e., free lime content) of CKD requires larger doses of material to be added to reach treatment pH targets for metals precipitation.
Processes; Process; Lime; Waters; Water; pH; Sludge; Treatment; Mines;