FREEZING METHOD FOR CONSOLIDATION OF SATURATED ROCK MASS -DEVELOPMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND TECHNOLOGY IN POLISH COPPER MINES

World Mining Congress
Since the very beginning of Polish copper mining, special consideration of sink shaft techniques through highly saturated Cenozoic rocks was required. Shaft freezing has been chosen as a method to consolidate these rocks. Due to the rock mass structure and water inflow potential, shaft sinking without freezing was considered dangerous. In the course of time, rock mass freezing technology and experience were evolved and this technology became safer and more reliable. New techniques appeared not only in the technical method of freezing, but also in the matter of designing. Computer aided techniques allow engineers to make a detailed analysis and view of freeze wall development. Nevertheless it is important to determine basic thermal rock properties. In this paper, the evolution of knowledge and engineering experience taken in Polish copper mines and current knowledge level in that matter were shown.
Keywords: Freezing; Rocks; Rock; Pipe; Shafts; brine; Systems; flow; Technology; Shaft sinking;
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