TECHNIQUES FOR MEASURING ROCKMASS BULKING AROUND TUNNELS IN HIGHLY STRESSED BRITTLE ROCKS
As the search for new ore bodies drives mines to be developed at greater depths, the associated high stress environments present challenges for rock support design. Excavations in highly stressed brittle rock are often subject to large volume increases due to rock failure, a phenomenon known as rock mass bulking, which can result in significant wall convergence. Support systems need to be designed to minimize the amount of bulking and to accommodate large wall convergences. In order to design such a support system, empirical guidelines are often used to predict the amount of bulking. However, the empirical guidelines that are currently available are based on a limited number of case studies and consider few input parameters, which may result in an inaccurate bulking assessment. This paper describes methods of collecting quantitative field data at Creighton mine in Canada to better understand rock mass bulking and to further develop the empirical guidelines for bulking assessment for tunnels in highly stressed grounds.
Rock; Rocks; stress; CORE; Tunnels; Data; excavation; failures; Failure;