The Implementation of a Mobile Equipment Data Collection System at Vale Inco

APCOM 2009
Abstract At Vale Inco underground mobile equipment production and maintenance
data is presently collected from paper slips. This paper reviews the
development of a system to electronically collect this
data. The benefits and improvements in data accuracy, timeliness and reduction in collection effort will be discussed. Technological issues from the use of WiFi, RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and the IREDES mine data equipment standard will be discussed.
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Summary: This paper presents the specific features of the large-scale production and transportation systems (LSPTS), describing the main notions and characteristics of the LSPTS elements. A methodologically unitary approach of the formulation, formalization and solution of the problems regarding the planning of the LSPTS structure development is offered, based on the system description by the aggregation-decomposition method, as weil as on the complex of interreloted models for the planning optimizati...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Gheorghe Florin Buse
Keywords: dynamic model, plan optimization, aggregation-decomposition method, large-scale production and transportation system
Year: 2009
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Summary: In this work we study how to incorporate risk control to the generation of ultimate pits when orebodies are modeled through a finite number of conditional simulations. To control risk we consider a chance constraint on the value of the ultimate pit. We incorporate this measure into the generation of ultimate pits by solving a stochastic programming version of the ultimate pit problem. We compare this stochastic programming problem to previous approaches such as generating the ultimate pit for...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Daniel Espinoza, Eduardo Moreno
Keywords: Ultimate Pit, Stochastic Programming, Conditional Simulation, Conditional Value at Risk, Chance Constraints
Year: 2009
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Summary: At Vale Inco underground mobile equipment production and maintenance
data is presently collected from paper slips. This paper reviews the
development of a system to electronically collect this
data. The benefits and improvements in data accuracy, timeliness and reduction in collection effort will be discussed. Technological issues from the use of WiFi, RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and the IREDES mine data equipment standard will be discussed.
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Year: 2009
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Summary: Mining-induced seismicity and rockbursting is one of the primary risks in deep mines. Seismic data management software has been created to facilitate analysis of mining-induced seismicity. The Mine Seismicity Risk Analysis Program (MS-RAP) is a purpose built database with mine seismicity analysis tools. One of the primary features of MS-RAP is the creation of seismic hazard maps in quasi-real time. The seismic hazard maps identify areas that are more prone to large seismic events and...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Yves Potvin
Keywords: Rockbursting, Risk management, Seismicity, Seismic hazard mapping, software
Year: 2009
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Summary: In this paper, the hardware foundations and data collection methods of a real time collision avoidance system for electric surface mining rope shovels are described. The primary goal of the system is to help a shovel operator avoid accidentally colliding the shovel’s dipper with either a nearby haul truck or the shovel’s tracks. To achieve this goal, the system requires complete and
precise knowledge of the shovel’s geometry and movement, as well as the location of any nearby haul trucks....
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Keywords: Safety, Surface mining, Stereo Camera, Robot Kinematics, rope shovel, Laser Scanner, Collision avoidance
Year: 2009
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Summary: The successful application of color sorting machines has established sensor-based sorting in the mineral industry in recent years and is considered today as a significant innovation in processing technology. However, we are only at the beginning of (market) introduction. New sensor systems have been developed, which exploit material properties such as electrical conductivity, magnetization, molecular structure, thermal conductivity etc. This opens up new exciting pre-concentration and...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): M. Kowalczyk
Keywords: Sorting, Sensors, X-ray, vision, Pre-concentration, Conductivity, Automation
Year: 2009
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Summary: Since the beginning of this century Boliden Mineral and Atlas Copco have worked together in stages on improving the accuracy and quality of drilling. Navigation of the drillrigs with IREDES has been in use in the Boliden mines for several years. Recently the capability of the system has extended with map navigation to more accurately follow the ore in cut&fill mines. The system allows for changes on the individual round level to follow the ore without changing the whole design for the...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Mikael Andersson, Kenneth Nyström
Keywords: Navigation, drillplan, Boliden, xml, IREDES
Year: 2009
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Summary: This paper revolves around the philosophies, strategies, goals and pitfalls in automating a mine schedule. As a consultant who has set-up many automated models, the intention of this paper is to give an open, honest view of who could benefit from moving to an automated system, what you can expect from such a system, and what you should be aware of. Many companies feel that moving to an automatic mine planning solution is going to allow the planner to push a button and walk away, but the...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Keywords: Scheduling, Production, automated, Mine planning
Year: 2009
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Summary: The logic and capabilities of a short-term planning tool are presented. It was developed using mixed integer linear programming (MILP) techniques to solve the surface and underground mine planning problems that include multiple mining areas, multiple processes, multiple destinations and blending requirements. It finds the optimum schedule that achieves the objective while satisfying comprehensive product quality and quantity requirements, equipment utilizations, as well as physical and...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Zhanyou Huang
Keywords: Production Scheduling, MILP, MineSight, Optimization
Year: 2009
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Summary: The literature in this field and the practical activity record that a method, respectively the technology used for an underground mining work have many components which, in order to be applied, demand that for each of the parameters that describe the environment of the mining work and that influence the chosing of that method and that technology of execution, must have values in an interval well determined. There are situations when one or many parameters of the set of parameters that...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Keywords: connections matrix, technology of execution, Model, method of digging, underground mining work
Year: 2009
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Summary: In the present paperwork is proposed an economical-mathematical model (fuzzy) that aims optimize the technological variants of the mechanized coal face. By fuzzification, the issues to solve become more flexible and allow the decision maker to acquire more variants for the functions objectively established. The description of technological solutions is carried out by a set of controllable variables of "category" type by which the type of the machinery is defined within the frame of the actual...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Sorin Iuliu Mangu, Nicolae Dobritoiu
Keywords: fuzzy model, Optimization, technological variants, mechanized hewing
Year: 2009
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Summary: To realise the full productivity gains of one pass rockbolt installation in underground roadway development, it is necessary to automate the skin reinforcement process. One solution would be to automate steel mesh installation, an alternative would be to develop a strong and tough spray on polymeric liner as a replacement for the steel mesh. Using numerical models, this paper evaluates the ability of a polymer skin reinforcement system to stabilise the fractured rock between the rock bolt...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Ernest Baafi, Ian Porter, Chris Lukey
Keywords: Spray on liner, Mine skin support, Automation of mine roadways, Strata stabilisation, Polymeric strata skin support
Year: 2009
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Summary: In the present paper, the performance of four approaches based on neural networks and geostatistical method for grade estimation are compared and analyzed their performance to find a proper method. Four methods, Multi Layer Perceptron neural network (MLP), Radial Basis Function (RBF), General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) and Ordinary Kriging (OK) are selected for ore grade estimation of variable Fe in an iron deposit located in Iran. For each method, two diagnostic statistics are...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Hassan Madani, Alireza Hezarkhani, Mohammad Izadi
Keywords: Grade estimation, Multi layer perceptron, radial basis function (RBF), Kriging, Neural networks, general regression neural network
Year: 2009
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Summary: A simulation model RoadSIM using the ARENA modelling system has been developed to evaluate roadway development options for a given development panel configuration. The RoadSIM simulation system has provisions for variability/randomness in operations including cutting and loading at the face, tramming and discharge of coal to the boot end and availability of equipment. The modelling system provides a means for assessing the operational limitations of roadway development practices at a...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Ernest Baafi, Ian Porter, Geoff Gray, Osvaldo Rojas
Keywords: Simulation, roadway development, underground coal
Year: 2009
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Summary: The JORC and NI43-101 codes impose that mineralized material has a reasonable prospect of economical extraction to be classified as Mineral Resource. For deposits close to surface and amenable to open pit mining, it is easy to show reasonable prospect of economic extraction running a Lerch-Grossman optimization. The Lerch-Grossman pit provides a transparent and repeatable way of separating the Mineral Resource (within the pit) from the remainder of the mineral inventory (outside the pit)....
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Emmanuel Henry
Keywords: Resources, Economical Extraction, Mineral Resource Classification, Reasonable Prospect, software
Year: 2009
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Summary: Due to the blocking nature at the crusher station, straightforward application of queuing theory cannot give realistic results on the performance of a shovel-truck-crusher system. A new queuing network-based model has been developed in which, the crusher station is formulated into an open queuing network and the whole shovel-truck-crusher system into a closed queuing network with the crusher station as a special server. To fully account for the influence of blocking, Monte Carlo simulation is...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Jiwen Zhang, Qing Wang
Keywords: Crusher Station, Blocking, Queueing Network, Open pit mining, Expanded Summation Method, Shovel-truck-crusher system
Year: 2009
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Summary: Geological assessment of active mine faces enables ore grade control, geological modelling and exploration planning. Monitoring of the mine advancement at every drill-blast-muck cycle allows for effective production management. However, geological assessments are performed infrequently due to the need to travel to active mine faces, and detailed surveys to map the mine progress are performed at the end of the month. Instant Mine Modeller (iMM) is a portable ruggedized stereo-vision system...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Dave Parry, Roy Jakola
Keywords: Photorealistic 3D Models, Geological mapping, Virtual geologist, Grade control, instant Mine Modeler, Underground mines
Year: 2009
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Summary: Radar Technologies are successful implemented in the military industry since decades and recently
found their way in the mining industry as level gauge radars for bin applications. The latest generation of microwave radar sensors are capable to provide geometrical data of the surrounding area of mining machines, too. Radar sensors are an improvement to laser scanners as they are more robust and able to penetrate dust and mist. Radar sensors will be the key source for operator assistance...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Karl Nienhaus, Martin Hahn, Christian Augustin
Keywords: Automation, Safety, Process control, Positioning, Autonomous, LHD, Radar, Laser, Terrain Imaging, Anti Collision
Year: 2009
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Summary: Atlas Copco, a leading supplier of equipment and services to the mining and construction industries, is consistently pursuing its strategy to offer the most productive and economical solutions by continuously offering new innovative products. These are in most cases developed and tested in close cooperation with demanding end users before being officially launched on the international market. The demands for higher productivity and improved overall economy have resulted in systems for...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Lars Eriksson, Dustin Penn
Year: 2009
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Summary: It is well known in the robotics community that the ability to determine the position of vehicles in real time is a key enabling technology required for automation, traffic management, and to ensure safety in the presence of multiple vehicles. Because of this, the introduction of global positioning systems (GPS) has had a remarkable impact on the surface mining industry, enabling real-time tracking of mobile assets, improved safety, and production optimization. Unfortunately, satellite-based...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Unal Artan, N.J. Lavigne, Joshua A. Marshall
Keywords: Automation, underground positioning, Mapping, Underground safety, Autonomous vehicles, Robotics, Mobile equipment
Year: 2009
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Summary: Conditional simulation is now an accepted tool for managing ore block design at a number of operating mines. It provides a way to consider the quality of data, local continuity and economic risk in defining ore and waste across the cut-off boundary. In addition a computer based system can ensure consistency in making decisions to meet multiple criteria such as cut-off grades, minimum ore-block size and contaminant grade limits. The development of a procedure for using multiple criteria allows...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Andrew Richmond, Marcelo Godoy
Year: 2009
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Summary: According to recently established theoretical analysis and under certain conditions, a critical sampling density can be determined for an earth-related space-distributed natural variable. Sampling above this critical limit adds little to the mapping results. The objective of this paper is the application of the above theory to the Sesklo clay quarry in Greece, where Heracles General Cement Company had conducted a sampling campaign to estimate its reserves. The structural analysis of Al2O3...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Stavros Stavrou, Abraham Christoforidis
Keywords: Sampling density, Ore Reserves Estimation, Inverse Distance Squares Method, Geostatistics
Year: 2009
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Summary: The Fe assay values from the diamond drill-holes within a magnetite deposit of magmatic origin are utilized in this study. Only assay data from the unoxidized magnetite mineralization was utilized. The data from the overlying hematite mineralization zone was not used. A three-dimensional block model estimated using ordinary kriging (OK) is used for analysis purposes. To estimate the non-linear standard deviations (s) and the confidence intervals (CI) of block estimates a discrete Gaussian...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Abani R Samal
Keywords: Geostatistics, variogram, confidence-interval
Year: 2009
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Summary: A critical aspect of long-term open-pit mine planning consists in computing a production schedule based upon a block sequencing strategy. Such a schedule should specify when and if blocks should be extracted in such a way as to maximize NPV, while satisfying wall-slope and production capacity constraints. It is well known that this problem can be modeled with integer programming (IP). However, integer programming is not used in practice because the size of typical block models makes such...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Daniel Espinoza, Marcos Goycoolea, Enrique Rubio, Jorge Amaya, Thomas Prevost
Keywords: Open pit mining, mixed integer programming., Optimization, Mine planning
Year: 2009
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Summary: In the overall open pit mine planning process, mining phase design is a strategic driver in guiding and constructing the block extraction sequence and determining the annual net cash flow distribution. Mining phase design should obey some practical constraints, such as “minimum mining width” and “flat mining phase bottom”, to allow space for haul road development and truck and shovel access on each bench. However, these practical mining phase design requirements are not taken into account in...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Meimei Zhang
Keywords: Mining Phase Design, Minimum Mining Width, Open Pit Mine Planning, Simulated Annealing
Year: 2009
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Summary: This article presents a novel technology for sensing the size of rocks after blasting in hard rock mines. Blast engineers require rock size statistics to carefully adjust the blasting parameters. The rock fragmentation requirements vary depending on the ore type and crusher specifications. The most popular statistical parameters in the industry are the so-called P numbers (e.g., P80 and P100). A machine vision based system is introduced here for automatic image
collection and fragmentation...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Nima Ziraknejad, Shahram Tafazoli
Keywords: Rock size estimation, Rock fragmentation
Year: 2009
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Summary: Modelling the geometry of a vein is a crucial step in resources estimation. The resulting models are used as mineralization domain boundaries and have a direct impact on the tonnage of estimated resources. Deterministic models are often built using time consuming wireframing techniques usually based on hand interpretation of the drillhole intercepts. Another approach consists in coding the drillhole samples by a function of their distance to the veins contacts. The coding is subsequently used...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Michael J. Munroe, Clayton V. Deutsch
Keywords: Geostatistics, Distance Functions, Uncertainty, Resources Estimation, Geological modelling, Variograms, Vein deposits
Year: 2009
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Summary: Conventional approaches to estimating reserves and optimizing mine planning and production forecasting result in single, often biased forecasts. This is largely due to the non-linear propagation of errors in understanding orebody attributes from a limited finite number of drilling data, throughout the chain of mine planning and mining. A new mine planning paradign is considered herein to include two interacting and potentially fusing elements: stochastic simulation and stochastic optimizati...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Year: 2009
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Summary: The ADS system was developed to reduce accidents related to haul trucks operating under low visibility conditions in surface mining and construction sites, which is based on the GPS, mesh-wireless networks, and the Google-Earth 3D graphic engine as the graphic interface and mine-mapping server. This system has the capability to pin-point and track vehicles in real time using a 3D interface, which is based on user-based AutoCAD mine maps using the Google-Earth graphics interface. All equipped...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Antonio Nieto, Zongxue Li
Keywords: assisted driving system, Google Earth, 3D simulation, mining safety
Year: 2009
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Summary: The lignite deposits of the Amyntaio-Ptolemais basin in North West Greece (western Macedonia) present a difficult modelling problem. Each deposit consists of several thin lignite layers ranging from a few centimetres to a few tens of centimeters in thickness, and thin intercalated sterile layers of marly limestones, marls, clays, and sands. The lignite layers are practically impossible to model individually due to the lack of reliable and detailed stratigraphic correlatation, leading to...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Christos J. Kolovos
Keywords: Resource estimation, Mine planning, stratigraphic modelling, fault modelling, Lignite
Year: 2009
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Summary: The objective of metrology in mineral exploration is to derive unbiased confidence limits for masses of metals contained in reserves and resources. Sets of test results for gold and silver determined in pairs of interleaved bulk samples give unbiased confidence limits for the central value of each metal. The same sets of test results show how to verify spatial dependence by applying Fisher’s F-test to the variance of a set and the first variance term of the ordered set. A significant degree...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Ed Merks
Year: 2009
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Summary: This paper outlines a framework for ensuring the success of the implementation phase that follows research and development of new mining technologies and systems. It is based upon recent and past lessons learned that have demonstrated the critical challenges to effective technology transfer, which frequently receive inadequate attention within the culture of the mining business. The paper focuses on mining automation implementation challenges and then outlines a Roadmap which is proposed as...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Mark Baker, Malcolm Scoble
Keywords: change management, Process, Technology, mining automation, people
Year: 2009
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Summary: Real-time mine management solutions have evolved over time from closed, proprietary solutions, to a "system of systems" that may include a wide variety of off-the-shelf components and technologies. Modular Mining Systems has embraced open standards for their NextGen products to bridge the technology gaps between these systems. However, the remaining logical gaps must be overcome, in order to achieve truly seamless integration between discrete systems. When dealing with volatile real-time...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Sergey Seroukhov
Keywords: fleet management, control flow, command and control, open standards, systems integration, mine automation, common operational picture, COTS, symbolic language, production analysis
Year: 2009
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Summary: Application of teleoperated and automated mobile equipment in underground metal mines represents a promising avenue to overcome some of the challenges facing the industry. This paper addresses the issues of overall effectiveness of the autonomous loading and haulage equipment in comparison with conventional man-operated machines. It overviews and discusses the factors affecting availability, utilization and production rate. It puts an emphasis on some problems and risks not present in...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Oualid Kotersi
Keywords: Teleoperation, Underground mining, Automation, Equipment, LHD, drill-rig, overall effectiveness, Truck
Year: 2009
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Summary: The technology of percussion drilling is well mastered, even if significant differences in assays analyses are observed in comparison to diamond drilling. Statistical studies on twin drillholes show that diamond and percussion assays cannot be put together in a traditional kriging approach. Then the question arises on the possibility to use both type of data to get a reliable estimate of resources. For the same budget more drillholes can then be drilled with cheaper percussion technology...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Marius Strydom
Keywords: Resource estimation, Integrating drillholes types, (Co)Kriging with variance of measurement error, Optimization of drilling budget, Integrating drillholes types, Optimization of drilling budget, Integrating drillholes types, Resource estimation, Optimization of drilling budget, Integrating drillholes types, Resource estimation, (Co)Kriging with variance of measurement error, Resource estimation, (Co)Kriging with variance of measurement error, (Co)Kriging with variance of measurement error, Resource estimation, Optimization of drilling budget, Integrating drillholes types, Optimization of drilling budget, Integrating drillholes types, Optimization of drilling budget, Resource estimation, (Co)Kriging with variance of measurement error, Integrating drillholes types, Optimization of drilling budget, (Co)Kriging with variance of measurement error, (Co)Kriging with variance of measurement error, (Co)Kriging with variance of measurement error, Integrating drillholes types, Integrating drillholes types, Resource estimation, Resource estimation, Optimization of drilling budget, Optimization of drilling budget, Resource estimation, (Co)Kriging with variance of measurement error
Year: 2009
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Summary: Mineral resources estimation comprises basically two stages: (i) data collection, analysis and validation, and (ii) the estimate of the grades and tonnes of the deposit. The most often applied method for sampling survey in mineral exploration is rotary drilling with total core recovery. High drilling costs make borehole geophysical logging attractive to obtain the maximum possible information from each borehole helping to understand ore intersections, grades variability, limits of the...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): João Felipe Coimbra Leite Costa, Jair Carlos Koppe, Paulo Salvadoretti
Keywords: Borehole logging, Gama-gama, Ash, Geophysics, Indicator, Kriging, Coal, Quality, Estimation, Density
Year: 2009
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Summary: Iron ore mines of Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) have to comply with strict chemical composition norms laid down for iron ore lumps supplied to its steel plants. This requires a careful planning of the overall ore excavation operation. In general terms, the problem can be stated as: Given the chemical composition of ore for all excavation sites, excavation capacity of each shovel, distance of each excavation site from the crushing plant and the number of dumpers available for...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Vinai Gupta
Year: 2009
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Summary: This study investigates geophysical logging capacity to predict coal quality. It was analyzed for possible correlation, some parameters determined via laboratory analysis of coal against results for the same parameter derived from wireline logs recorded by a geophysical probe. These probes detect variations in some rock physical properties, such as their natural gamma ray emissions and electrical resistivity. Results showed a strong correlation between natural gamma and ash content, establish...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): João Felipe Costa, Filipe Beretta, Vládia Cristina G. Souza
Keywords: Coal, gamma ray emission, Ash, Geophysical logging
Year: 2009
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Summary: Erratic high grade values are as common in the nature as source of problems for resource estimators. In some highly erratic metal deposits, less than 2% of the drilling samples can represent more than 10% of the total metal in the blocks and they are associated with a high risk level. There is a risk of local overestimation but also of global overestimation, with the high grades being projected over too large a volume. Capping or restriction of these outliers control is being widely used...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Manuel Machuca
Keywords: Outlier, capping, Restriction, High Grades
Year: 2009
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Summary: The BGMR has developed a method for an online-analysis during drilling processes in cooperation with Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology in Aachen and various industrial partners. This allows for efficient utilization of deposits, maximum recovery of desired minerals and frequent and cost-efficient updates of deposit models. The used method, namely laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), was implemented into a compact demonstrator in order to analyze drill dust and loosened...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Karl Nienhaus, Thomas Bartnitzki, Marina Gaastra, Fiona Mavroudis
Keywords: Quality control, shearer loader, drilling machine, LIBS analysis, Automation
Year: 2009
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Summary: This paper discusses the application of a commercially available state-of-the-art PC discrete-event simulation modeling software, called Promodel, for simulating a typical underground mine hoist system in the Sudbury mining region, in the province of Ontario in Canada. The reasons for using Promodel as a two-dimensional simulation development tool is its simplicity in use and its capabilities to provide enough flexibility to meet the modeling requirements of a mine hoist system. General...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Nick Vayenas, XiangXi Wu
Keywords: Underground mines, Computer simulation, PC computer, case study example, Hoists, modelling of hoists, two dimensional animation
Year: 2009
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Summary: During ore body modeling normally additional samples are required to improve resources evaluation and mining planning. At this stage one rises the question about where additional samples should be located. Regular sampling pattern seems to be a reasonable choice, since all the regions within the deposit receive the same number of samples without a clear clustering. Nevertheless, values for certain
attributes (grades for instance) from a mineral deposits may behave more erratic in some regions...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): João Felipe Coimbra Leite Costa, Jair Carlos Koppe
Year: 2009
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Summary: In the geology domain, a wide range of data is categorised as “sample observations and measurements” (SOM) data. Due to its diverse nature, SOM data can sometimes appear to be a bewildering array of interconnected information. SOM data is often divided into types like soil samples, diamond drilling, environmental, coal, or diamond. Although each SOM type has a similar data structure, there are unique characteristics for each type. It is difficult to produce a truly generic SOM data model when...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Ian W.S. William Sumner Whitehouse
Keywords: observation, analytical procedures, Conceptual model, batch, data model, ASSAY, samples, geological, submission, Measurement
Year: 2009
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Summary: The full economic evaluation of a mining project requires a block model that provides an estimate of the tons and grades of available resources. The model must be representative of the mineralization to be found at the time of mining for specified extraction periods and within acceptable error margins. In an operating mine, there may be a reasonable understanding and estimates of actual dilution and ore loss. This paper discusses the issue from the perspective of a project at a feasibility or...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Keywords: Recoverable Resources, Dilution
Year: 2009
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Summary: Information exchange for mine process optimization is essential. Today, modern mining equipment uses the IREDES standard to exchange production plans and reports for easy management and storage. To gain further benefits from process optimization, a mine wide access to real-time information is needed as e.g.: The current status of a machine, operational details etc. Presently, real-time data exchange systems are developed by machine producers. Each machine producer uses its own way of...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Christoph Müller, Guangxi Chen
Keywords: Standardization, Web services, Real-time, mining process optimization, cross platform, OPC UA
Year: 2009
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Summary: Open pit mine plans define the complex strategy of displacement of ore and waste over the mine life. The objective of the mine plan is to maximize the future cash flows within the technical and physical constraints. Various mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulations have been used for production scheduling of open pit mines. In the MILP formulation the slope constraints guarantee that all the overlying blocks are mined prior to mining a given block. Traditionally, the slope...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Hooman Askari-Nasab, Kwame Awuah-Offei
Year: 2009
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Summary: Recent trends of the mining project show that there will be more and more mechanized, large-scale mining operations with complex process options to make low grade deposits economically feasible to develop. The global optimization of large scale, complex mine operations will become more important for the future mining. To serve the industry’s future needs, the OptiMine® software program is developed based on expertise gained at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) for more than two decades, by...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Kazuhiro Kawahata
Keywords: Optimization, Long Term Planning, Open pit
Year: 2009
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Summary: Shovels and excavators have significant blind spots due to their large sizes, increasing the chances of collision with other surrounding equipment such as haul trucks, loaders, and dozers. While a camera surveillance system is very useful in preventing collision, it can benefit from two additional features: (i) the ability to display the distance of the closest object within the view, and more importantly (ii) the ability to warn the operator if objects are getting too close. After a...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Nima Ziraknejad, Arya Ohadi, Shahram Tafazoli
Keywords: Radar, collision, ToothMetrics-Plus, surveillance, vision, Shovel, blind spot, Haul Trucks, Mining, CAN-bus
Year: 2009
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Summary: Open pit mine planning is normally based on the selection of an economic envelope that has been generated by the Lerchs & Grossman algorithm, which requires individual economic valuation of each block of a geological block model. The selected envelope, usually called Final Pit, is later discretized in pushbacks and benches, which correspond finally to the fractions that the production schedule will allocate in time. This planning methodology has been widely used by the mining industry in...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Enrique Alfonso Rubio, Sebastián Horacio Troncoso, Patricio A. Prieto
Keywords: Mine planning, Arsenic, Production schedule, Open pit, pollutant constraints, Open pit, Mine planning, Arsenic, Production schedule, pollutant constraints, Mine planning, Arsenic, Production schedule, pollutant constraints, Open pit
Year: 2009
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Summary: A fast and objective spreadsheet-based model for the financial evaluation of innovative mining and processing strategies such as pre-concentration vs. a conventional base case is presented. The size and grade of the deposit must be chosen, from which a mining rate is selected. Expected operational data for the deposit as well as any mill testwork and results from the pre-concentration testwork are entered as input variables on the sheet, and cost and revenue impacts are calculated in the...
Proceedings: APCOM 2009
Author(s): Scott Dunbar, Bern Klein, Malcolm Scoble
Keywords: mine mill integration, Cost estimation, life of mine, Modelling, Metal recovery, resource economics
Year: 2009