Le diagramme ternaire Al2O3-Sr-Y : un nouvel outil pour l’exploration de gisements de sulfures massifs volcanogènes

CIM Journal, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2015, pages 67-74

M. Proulx
Géo-Consilium, Val-d'Or, Québec, Canada

http://dx.doi.org/10.15834/cimj.2015.12
Abstract The tertiary diagram Al2O3-Sr-Y is a new tool to explore Archean volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposits. The diagram can be used to discriminate between the volcanic rocks where zinc is the dominant mineralization (Zn+ domain) and the rocks where copper is the dominant mineralization (Cu+ domain), as well as the volcanic rocks that were subjected to hydrothermal chloritization that could have led to the formation of chloritites associated with alteration chimneys (Cl+ domain). These three domains define the zones of geochemical influence, or residual or fossil hydrothermal footprints produced by hydrothermal convection cells generated by magmas. Exploration companies can apply the diagram to determine, at low cost, the potential fertility of the Archean volcanic rocks by using their databases and the results of their field analyses, without any data manipulation. The diagram does not apply to gold-bearing VMS deposits.
Keywords: Al2O3-Sr-Y, Alteration, Exploration, Hydrothermal chimney, Tertiary diagram, Tool, Volcanogenic sulphides
Résumé Le diagramme ternaire Al2O3-Sr-Y est un nouvel outil servant à l’exploration de gisements de sulfures massifs volcanogènes (SMV) archéens. Le diagramme permet de discriminer entre les roches volcaniques à minéralisations à zinc dominant (domaine Zn+) et celles à minéralisations à cuivre dominant (domaine Cu+), ainsi que les roches volcaniques ayant subi une chloritisation hydrothermale pouvant aboutir à la formation de chloritites associées aux cheminées d’altération (domaine Cl+). Ces trois domaines délimitent des zones d’influence géochimique ou d’empreintes hydrothermales résiduelles ou fossiles produites par les cellules de convection hydrothermales générées par des magmas. Le diagramme permet aux sociétés d’exploration de déterminer de façon peu coûteuse la fertilité potentielle des roches volcaniques archéennes en ayant recours à leurs bases de données et aux résultats de leurs analyses de terrain, sans aucune manipulation des données. Le diagramme ne s’applique pas aux SMV aurifères.
Mots-Clé Al2O3-Sr-Y, altération, cheminée hydrothermale, diagramme ternaire, exploration, outil, sulfures volcanogènes
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