The corrosion of rock bolts and a method to quantify the corrosion potential in mines

CIM Journal, Vol. 1, No. 3, 2010
A. J. S. Spearing, K. Mondal, and G. Bylapudi, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois, USA, J. Hirschi, Illinois Clean Coal Institute, Carterville, Illinois, USA
Abstract

Rock bolts are the main form of defence against rockfalls in mines. Conditions underground are conducive to corrosion. A perception exists about American coal mines that bolt corrosion is not an issue, especially when bolts are fully grouted. This perception is not necessarily accurate due to the formation of micro-cracks as the resin sets and to subsequent rock movement that breaks the resin column’s continuity. Corrosion should be considered when designing rock bolt support in long-term excavations. This paper explores the problem of corrosion, outlines a method to determine the corrosion potential of bolts, and suggests ways to mitigate such effects.


Les boulons d’ancrage constituent le principal moyen de défense contre les chutes de roches dans les mines. Les conditions souterraines sont cependant propices à la corrosion. Il existe une perception dans les mines de charbon en Amérique que la corrosion n’est pas un problème, surtout lorsque les boulons sont encaissés dans un coulis. Cette perception n’est pas nécessairement juste en raison de la formation de micro-fissures alors que la résine se solidifie et que des mouvements subséquents du roc brisent la continuité de la colonne de résine. La corrosion doit être prise en compte lors de la conception du soutien par boulons d’ancrage dans les excavations à long terme. Cet article étudie le problème de la corrosion, décrit une méthode pour déterminer le potentiel de corrosion des boulons et suggère des manières de minimiser de tels effets.
Keywords: Acid, Alkali, Rock bolt, Chlorides, Corrosion, Iron, Nitrates, pH, Sulphates, Water, Acide, Alcalin, Boulon d’ancrage, Chlorures, Corrosion, Fer, Nitrates, pH, Sulfates, Eau
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Publication: CIM Journal
Issue: 3
Volume: 1
Year: 2010
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Issue: 3
Volume: 1
Year: 2010
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Summary: Agnico-Eagle’s LaRonde mine is one of the deepest mines in Canada. Ground conditions in the deeper levels can be very challenging, ranging from hard and brittle to soft and squeezing. As a result, rock mechanics and ground control practices have had to evolve considerably to accommodate progressively deeper mining activities. This paper focuses on the deeper levels of mines and how the difficult ground conditions encountered there have influenced the mining strategy. The first section...
Publication: CIM Journal
Author(s): F. Mercier-Langevin, Agnico-Eagle Mines Ltd., Cadillac, Quebec
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Issue: 3
Volume: 1
Year: 2010
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Summary: Application of teleoperated and automated (or “autonomous”) mobile equipment in underground metal mines represents a promising avenue for overcoming some of the challenges facing the industry. This paper addresses the overall effectiveness of autonomous loading and haulage equipment compared with conventional human-operated machines. Factors affecting availability, utilization, and production rate are explored, and an emphasis is placed on some problems and risks not present in conventional...
Publication: CIM Journal
Author(s): J. Paraszczak, Université Laval, Québec City, Québec
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Issue: 3
Volume: 1
Year: 2010
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Summary: The scheduling of underground mining activities is a complex task that must simultaneously satisfy a large number of constraints. A schedule optimization tool (SOT) for underground mine planning is described, and its use for investigating strategic decisions is illustrated through a case study. The main components of the SOT include (a) a genetic algorithm that searches for optimal schedules, (b) guidance for the application of heuristic rules, and (c) sliding, which implements just-in-time...
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Author(s): B. Maybee, Curtin Graduate School of Business, Perth, Australia, L. Fava
Symbioticware, Sudbury, Ontario, P. G. Dunn, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia, S. Wilson, Mine Advantage Inc., Toronto, Ontario, J. Fitzgerald, Scotia Capital,
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Issue: 3
Volume: 1
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Summary: The influence of using different extraction processes (caustic versus non-caustic) on the thixotropic strength of oil sands fine tailings is examined, as is the influence of adding a coagulant to caustic fine tailings. The thixotropic strength of fine tailings at large void ratios manifests itself as a bonding or gel strength that has been widely noted both in the laboratory and in the field. This gel strength has a significant influence on preventing the initial consolidation or settlement...
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Author(s): W. G. Miller, WorleyParsons Services, Perth, Australia, J. D. Scott and D. C. Sego, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta
Keywords: Oil sands, Tailings, Fine tailings, Caustic, Non-caustic, Coagulant, Shear strength, Vane shear, Thixotropy, Thixotropic strength, Sables bitumineux, Résidus, Résidus fins, Caustique, Non caustique, Coagulant, Résistance au cisaillement, Scissomètre, Thixotropie, Résistance thixotropique
Issue: 3
Volume: 1
Year: 2010
Text
Summary: Erratum
Due to a printing error in Figure 3 in the following paper published in CIM Journal, Vol. 1, No. 2, p. 87, the corrected paper is being republished here in its entirety. Our apologies to the authors and readers for any inconvenience caused.
En raison d’erreurs d’impression au figure 3 du document suivant publié dans le CIm Journal, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 87, l’article corrigé est republié en entier. Nous nous excusons auprès des auteurs et des lecteurs pour tout désagrément.

The developmen...
Publication: CIM Journal
Author(s): L. Huang and S. Koppalkar, COREM, Québec, Québec
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Issue: 3
Volume: 1
Year: 2010
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